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Lists: design and construction, by Edward Tufte
Evelyn Waugh famously built long descriptive lists into
sentences by separating list elements with semi-colons.
From Waugh's Scoop (1937), my favorite novel:
My chapter in Beautiful Evidence, "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within,"
discusses hierarchical lists and suggests that the hierarchical bullet lists of PowerPoint too often
replaces the miracle of the sentence with the grunt of the bullet-point list:
Web design: Lists, not slideshows, not clickdowns, not deep hierarchies
Lists should be distributed over space as much as possible information resolution of the display: the greater the spatial resolution, the lesser the temporal stacking. And the less temporal stacking, the better. Information wants to be spatially adjacent so as facilitate comparisons made within the common eyespan of the viewer.
Here is wonderful analysis by Jonah Peretti, CEO of BuzzFeed:
Contrast the BuzzFeed approach with the Rolling Stone magazine list of the 500 greatest songs ever. To see the complete list requires 500 separate clickdowns! Each clickdown shows a single song and its one tiny paragraph-description.
The RS 500 is an unusable list and cynical presentation.
"Respecting our Readers
We care about the experience of people who read BuzzFeed and we don't try to trick them for short term gain. This
approach is surprisingly rare.
How does this matter in practice? First of all, we don't publish slideshows. Instead we publish scrollable lists so readers
don't have to click a million times and can easily scroll through a post. The primary reason to publish slideshows, as
far as I can tell, is to juice page views and banner ad impressions. Slideshows are super annoying and lists are
awesome so we do lists!
For the same reason, we don't show crappy display ads and we make all our revenue from social advertising that users
love and share. We never launched one of those "frictionless sharing" apps on Facebook that automatically shares the
stories you click because those apps are super annoying. We don't post deceptive, manipulative headlines that trick
people into reading a story. We don't focus on SEO or gaming search engines or filling our pages with millions of
keywords and tags that only a robot will read. We avoid anything that is bad for our readers and can only be justified
by short term business interests."
Superb outdoor list: Vietnam Veterans Memorial
From Edward Tufte, Envisioning Information, 43-44:
Serious lists: patient gives doctor (and everyone else involved) a problem list
ET's proposal for medical patient lists:
There are empirical studies of doctor-patient interactions. An early study reported that doctors on average made their first interruption after the patient had talked for 18 seconds. This 18-second finding produced appropriate consternation hand-wringing, and medical schools began to teach doctors to listen, listen, listen. Years later, the study was redone; the first interruption now came after 23 seconds!
Here is a straightforward way to improve doctor-patient communication. In advance of the meeting, the patient prepares a list of all the issues (not "complaints" as the medical world sometimes describes patients' problems) to be covered at appointment with the doctor. This list should include causal speculations by the patient: "This pain on my right side might be a gall bladder issue. A grandparent and my father had gall bladder problems around my age." The patient should make several copies of this list-agenda paper and bring them to the appointment.
At the beginning of the meeting, the patient hands a doctor a copy of the list. The doctor, who did not get to be a doctor by being a slow reader, can read about 3 times faster than the patient can talk. Doctor's read such problem lists all the time in medical records. After handing the agenda-list over, the patient should look down at her/his own copy, hinting that it is time to start reading. Or perhaps saying, "Here it all is, read this." This may finesse a little joke by the doctor, "So, what's with the paper dress?" (as a New Yorker cartoon had it).
The list gets everything the patient initially has to say out on the table, without interruption. As the appointment continues, the list sets an agenda and a schedule for the allocation of time during the meeting. It also helps to make sure that the patient does not abandon lower-level issues that should be discussed--because there the issues are, already written out. Each item on the list is, in effect, checked off as the appointment moves along. Perhaps the patient should even ostentatiously check off the first point on the list after it is discussed to indicate that this list is what we're going to march through. The idea is that the doctor is not only going to be looking at the computer and at the patient, but also at the list. Because the patient keeps looking at the list.
The patient should bring several copies to the list to the appointment, since the patient may see several medical staff members during the appointment. Each medical person gets the agenda-list. For example, my doctor often has a medical student in training who handles the initial discussion and who then goes off to describe the situation to the doctor, who shows up later. Both the student and the doctor get copies of the agenda list. Multiple copies are particularly effective in the emergency room (if it is possible to prepare a list before going to the ER!), since the patient will surely see a good many medical staff members at the emergency room (especially at hospitals affiliated with medical schools).
The list-agenda enhances the efficiency, accuracy, and throughput of information presented by the patient. It also helps reduce socially or situationally-determined answers to the doctor's questions; instead the patient information has already been prepared in advance, free of social pressure.
This list goes into the patient file and also assists the doctor in preparing notes for the patient record. Someday the patient will provide the list via email in advance of the appointment; even so, the patient should still bring paper copies to the appointment itself.
Perhaps now and then such an agenda-list will even improve the effectiveness of medical care.
Lists used by patients to inform doctors are discussed in our thread Medical information exchange: The patient, doctor, computer triangle.
List-making assumptions revealed by Borges animals list
Here is the list of animals by Jorge Luis Borges from a "certain [no doubt mythical] Chinese encyclopedia":
those that belong to the Emperor,
those that are trained,
those included in the present classification,
those that tremble as if they were mad,
those drawn with a very fine camelhair brush,
those that have just broken a flower vase,
those that from a long way off look like flies.
Borges' animals list reveals and contradicts the logical underpinnings of conventional lists. Borges' list cleverly points to, and breaks, the assumption in most lists that the elements
have a good deal in common. Most lists implicitly delimit the eligible scope of elements,
and many fail to tell readers what that scope might be, a failure in domain
Thus alert readers might ask about lists: What elements were considered and left out?
What is the domain specification of this particular list? How would the list differ if the
domain specification shifted? If we were make this list on our own, without knowledge of
the presenter's list, what would our list look like? If our opponent were to make such a list,
what would it look like?
Richard Serra's intense to-do list
Richard Serra's famous list of mostly verbs and some nouns is the
to-do list of a great sculptor. The list is notable for its richness, intensity, and long time-horizon. It also includes one of my favorite ideas: simultaneity.
Makers and viewers of lists should reflect on the time domain of lists:
From what period of time were the list elements collected?
Is there a time-sequence to items listed? Should there be?
What period of time does the list itself cover?
"The top ten"? When? Where? For how long? 1week? 10 years?
"The best ever"? You examined forever? Your comparison set was for all time?
All-purpose time-domain rejoinders to lists of inventions:
"Wasn't that done 500 years earlier in China?"
Serra image source: http://www.ubu.com/concept/serra_verb.html
"Didn't Leonardo da Vinci do that in 1506?"
"Japanese cellphones had that 6 years ago."
Serious lists: aviation checklists
Philip Greenspun on aviation checklists:
"Aviation is replete with checklists. One thing that you will never see in an aviation checklist is a bullet. Each item on a checklist is one line, typically challenge/response, e.g., "Thrust Reversers......Armed". Perhaps on one checklist out of 10 there will be an item that is a bit too long to fit on one line in a column. The continuation of the line will be indicated by whitespace underneath the challenge portion of the line and the continuation of the response underneath the first part of the response.
If aviation can have tens of thousands of lists and no bullets, how come PowerPoint presentations can't survive without bullets? Bullets are essential when you can't summon the discipline to make each item roughly the same length, or at least make each item fit on one line.
How are checklists used in a two-pilot airplane?
The first kind of checklist is read silently by a pilot who is preparing part of the airplane while the co-pilot is off doing something else. This checklist is designed simply to remind the pilot to do everything necessary.
The second kind of checklist is read aloud by one of the two pilots, e.g., the climb checklist (gear up; flaps up; thrust reversers off; ...). This not only reminds the pilot of stuff that he or she may have forgotten but gives the co-pilot assurance that important tasks have been accomplished.
The third kind of checklist is read aloud by the two pilots as a team. For each line pilot reads the challenge item and one reads the respond item. This is done when you want to be absolutely sure that both pilots are paying attention. The before landing checklist is done this way: "Landing Gear: DOWN; Flaps: SET 45, INDICATING 45; Thrust Reversers: ARMED" (lower case read by pilot monitoring; UPPER CASE read by pilot flying (in airline operations these roles are swapped on every leg by the captain and first officer)).
Checklists are so important in airline operations that all checklists are run all the time, e.g., if an airliner were doing a simple takeoff and left turn around the pattern to land again, possibly for a maintenance check, the pilots would do lineup, climb, 10,000', cruise, descent, approach, and landing checklists. This despite the fact that the airplane was never up to 10,000', was never in cruise flight, never descended except from 1,500' to the runway, and did not do an instrument approach."
Serious lists: ICU checklists
Peter Pronovost's lists for intensive care:
"The Checklist: If something so simple can transform intensive care, what else can it do?" by Atul Gawande
Tendentious, commercialized, and stupid lists
As Google search-results lists are manipulated by search engine optimization, astroturfers, and by the search engines themselves, so are many many top ten lists are governed by pop culture fans or gamed by thuggish or biased opportunists. Wouldn't it be good to have a search
engine whose first-page results list was curated, ungamed, governed by some intellectual decent
values--a search engine that didn't try to its users into its product?
The "wisdom of crowds" is too often the tyranny and stupidity of the
mob. I like top 10 lists, but only from
trusted and known sources, such as quirky intellectuals and Consumer Reports. Thus viewers of lists constantly need to assess the credibility, intelligence, and interests of the list-maker.
An excellent article on top ten lists and their problems:
Nick Bilton, "Disruptions: Top 10 Lists Lead to Less Choice on the Web," The New York Times,
points out the narrowing that results from top 10 lists, at least those not from trusted sources.
Lists in Real Science
Lists in real science (and therefore based on the forever universal laws of Nature) can be luscious, hundreds of times larger and more complex than short-attention-span lists designed by commercial artists. The best visualizations of all are often best visualizations constructed by first-rate scientists publishing in major scientific journals.
From D Wu, P Hugenholtz, et al. A phylogeny-driven genomic encyclopaedia of Bacteria and Archaea Nature 462, 1056-1060(24 December 2009). The red ones have been adopted for sequencing by the GEBA project.
More on the GEBA project here
Example provided by Niels Olson
-- Edward Tufte
Hierarchical trees do not model the real world of information (even hierarchical information)
I am grateful to Martin Hardee, who generously recalled this story despite my abruptness in looking over AnswerBook:
"A long, long time ago, my friend Eric Bergman and I were working on the UI for Sun AnswerBook, which was a CD-based predecessor to docs.sun.com.
Sun had invited Edward Tufte in to teach a session in our Boston office about the Grand Vistas of Information Architecture or something. After the class, we lured him into our usability lab to look at the user interface for Answerbook, of which were were very proud.
Anyway... we were very proud of our user interface and the fact that we had a way to browse 16,000(!!) pages of documentation on a CD-ROM. But browsing the hierarchy felt a little complicated to us. So we asked Tufte to come in and have a look, and were hoping perhaps for a pat on the head or some free advice.
ET played with our AnswerBook for about 90 seconds, turned around, and pronounced his review:
"Dr Spock's Baby Care is a best-selling owner's manual for the most
complicated 'product' imaginable -- and it only has two levels of headings.
You people have 8 levels of hierarchy and I haven't even stopped counting yet.
No wonder you think it's complicated."
From Tim Berners-Lee, The original proposal of the WWW:
"The problem with trees
Many systems are organised hierarchically. The CERNDOC documentation system is an example, as is the Unix file system, and the VMS/HELP system. A tree has the practical advantage of giving every node a unique name. However, it does not allow the system to model the real world. For example, in a hierarchical HELP system such as VMS/HELP, one often gets to a leaf on a tree such as
HELP COMPILER SOURCE_FORMAT PRAGMAS DEFAULTS,
and it is necessary to leave the system and re-enter it. What was needed was a link from one node to another, because in this case the information was not naturally organised into a tree."
only to find a reference to another leaf:
"Please see HELP COMPILER COMMAND OPTIONS DEFAULTS PRAGMAS"
gets most everything right about information design. Of course.
-- Edward Tufte
George Miller's Magical number +/-7 not relevant for interface or information design
Now and then the narrow bandwidth of lists presented on computer screens and bullet points on PowerPoint slides is said to be a virtue, a claim justified by loose reference to George Miller's classic 1956 paper "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two." That essay reviews psychological experiments that discovered people had a hard time remembering more than about 7 unrelated pieces of really dull data all at once. These studies on memorizing nonsense then led some interface designers to conclude that only 7 items belong on a list or a slide, a conclusion which can be sustained only by not reading the paper. In fact Miller's paper neither states nor implies rules for the amount of information to be shown in a presentation (except possibly for slides that consist of nonsense syllables that the audience must memorize and repeat back to a psychologist). Indeed, the deep point of Miller's paper is to suggest strategies, such as placing information within a context, that extend the reach of memory beyond tiny clumps of data.
At Williams College in September 2000, I saw George Miller give a presentation that used an optimal number of bullet points on an optimal number of slides--zero. Just a nice straightforward talk with a long narrative structure.
George A. Miller, "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information," Psychological Review, 63 (1956), 81-97; paper posted at http://cogprints.org/730/1/miller.html
"Williams College to Honor Eight Renowned Scientists," September 23, 2000 http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/williams
-- Edward Tufte
George Miller himself on relevance of +/-7 to information design
Here is a comment by the George Miller on the scope and relevance of his classic essay:
From: George Miller
To: Mark Halpern
Subject: Re: citation for your disclaimer
Many years ago landscape architects used my +/-7 paper as a basis to pass local laws restricting the number of items on a billboard. It was funded by the big motel chains; if you run a mom-and-pop motel you have to put a lot of information on your sign, but if you have a franchise everybody knows you have hot and cold running water, color televisions, free breakfasts, etc. The restriction on billboard content was driving the small motels out of business.
The same argument was used in the Lady Bird Johnson Act to prohibit billboards within X feet of highways, and the billboard industry (a strange group that deserves an essay of its own) was hurting. They hired a man to travel around from town to town trying to refute the claims that more than 7 items of information could cause accidents. The man's wife did not like her husband being constantly on the road, so she asked him about it. He told her that the root of his trouble was some damn Harvard professor who wrote a paper about 7 bits of
information. She, being herself a psychologist, said that she did not think that that was what Professor Miller's paper said.
Armed with this insight, he looked me up and told me the whole story about my career, unknown to me, in the billboard industry. There was much more to it than
I have outlined here, and I was shocked. So shocked that I wrote a long letter thing to set the record straight. The letter was published in the monthly journal of the billboard industry and that was the end of it. Unfortunately, I
no longer have a copy of the letter an I don't recall the name of the journal
(this was all back in the early 70s) so I cannot quote to you its contents. But
the point was that 7 was a limit for the discrimination of unidimensional stimuli (pitches, loudness, brightness, etc.) and also a limit for immediate recall, neither of which has anything to do with a person's capacity to comprehend printed text.
If you want to quote the original article, it is on line and you can find a pointer to it at www.cogsci.princeton.edu/~wn. But if that is too time consuming - yes, you are right: nothing in my paper warrants asking Moses to discard any of the ten commandments.
(This is posted at http://members.shaw.ca/philip.sharman/myth.html )
-- Edward Tufte
I frequently find rules with "six" as the magic number of bullets. But today I came across this expanded rule from the American College of Radiology.
"Follow the 666 rule: Use no more than six words per bullet, six bullets per image, and six word slides in a row. Any more words per bullet, and you don't have a bullet. More than six bullets per slide are difficult to read. By the end of six text-filled slides you have been talking for about 10 minutes without a visual."
While the limit of six slides is a mercy, I expect that soon someone will demand that those six words be no longer than six letters.
-- David A. Nash (email)
The 6-line-only rule for bullet lists seems to come up in witless PP presentations on how to make witless PP presentations. Here is the full 666 rule in action, the Haiku Rule for presentations:
And a few more delicious lists
It seems that great prose writers display an amazing style when writing lists. (We would
probably all be grateful to read Virginia Tufte's views on this...)
To the preceding Kipling example, may I add a Somerset Maugham favorite from The
Book Bag :
There were books of all kinds. Volumes of verse, novels, philosophical
critical studies (they say books about books are profitless, but they certainly make very
pleasant reading), biographies, history; there were books to read when you were ill and
books to read when your brain, all alert, craved for something to grapple with; there were
books that you had always wanted to read, but in the hurry of life at home had never
found time to; there were books to read at sea when you were meandering through narrow
waters on a tramp steamer, and there were books for bad weather when your whole cabin
creaked and you had to wedge yourself in your bunk in order not to fall out; there were
books chosen solely for their length, which you took with you when on some expedition
you had to travel light, and there were the books you could read when you could read
In Spanish, one might add Jorge Luis Borges' famous list of animals; in French, Jacques
Prévert's delicious Inventaire for fun, and the whole of George
Pérec's Penser/Classer for thought...
-- Thomas-Xavier Martin (email)
T. S.Eliot lists in poems
Lists provide a collection of variant elements all residing within the same domain. When
read through eyes alert to lists, T. S. Eliot's Four Quartets contains many lists,
the tone of a rhythmic chant. Here from the second quartet, "East Coker":
O dark dark dark. They all go into the dark,
Or the opening of the first quartet, "Burnt Norton", which works its way through a set of
echoed revisions (and is beautiful to read or to hear aloud):
The vacant interstellar spaces, the vacant into the vacant,
The captains, merchant bankers, eminent men of letters,
The generous patrons of art, the statesmen and the rulers,
Distinguished civil servants, chairmen of many committees,
Industrial lords and petty contractors, all go into the dark,
And dark the Sun and Moon, and the Almanach de Gotha
And the Stock Exchange Gazette, the Directory of Directors,
And cold the sense and lost the motive of action.
Time present and time past
Are both perhaps present in time future,
And time future contained in time past.
If all time is eternally present
All time is unredeemable.
What might have been is an abstraction
Remaining a perpetual possibility
Only in a world of speculation.
What might have been and what has been
Point to one end, which is always present.
Footfalls echo in the memory
Down the passage which we did not take
Towards the door we never opened
Into the rose-garden. My words echo
Thus, in your mind.
But to what purpose
Disturbing the dust on a bowl of rose-leaves
I do not know.
Inhabit the garden. Shall we follow?
-- Edward Tufte
Pros and cons of bamboo types (with joke)
We're starting an architectural bamboo farm at Hogpen Hills Farms. A helpful practical book is Jackie Heinricher, Boo-Shoot Gardens, Discovering Bamboo (2006). A 2D list from the book (p. 67) is shown below:
-- Edward Tufte
Virginia Tufte on lists
This is a fascinating thread. I continue to enjoy seeing the ways good writers use the
resources of the English language to turn something as ordinary as a list into a work of
art. Some months ago, contributor Thomas-Xavier Martin wrote: "It seems that great prose
writers display an amazing style when writing lists. (We would probably all be grateful to
read Virginia Tufte's views on this)."
One of my views is that the technique of listing or presenting items in a narrative series is
highly useful not only to "great prose writers" and not just in novels but to almost anyone
who writes, no matter what the genre. A series with only three or four items can work well,
its effectiveness often enhanced by the context. And the series doesn't have to be nouns
but can be verbs or adjectives--any part of speech or almost any syntactic structure--
appositives, clauses, prepositional phrases. Usually it is a string of the same syntactic
structures, and often it hints at relationships among the lexical items it includes, along
with some cumulative effect or totality. Also a good list often surprises by interrupting its
sameness with variations.
In Artful Sentences: Syntax as Style, I don't write much about lists as such, but
there are dozens of examples among the more than a thousand wonderful sentences I
quote. You might like to look especially at Parallelism, which is Chapter 12, and Syntactic
Symbolism, Chapter 14. (Graphics Press, 2006)
Here are a couple of contrasting examples. Sandra Cisneros juxtaposes eleven fragments
in a row, each including one or more noun phrases, all as appositives or as prepositional
phrase modifiers of the page's title, "A House of My Own." They name what the house is
not and is:
"Not a flat. Not an apartment in back. Not a man's house. Not a daddy's. A house all my
own. With my porch and my pillow, my pretty purple petunias. My books and my stories.
My two shoes waiting beside the bed. Nobody to shake a stick at. Nobody's garbage to
pick up after.
Only a house quiet as snow, a space for myself to go, clean as paper before the
poem." (108, The House on Mango Street, Vintage Books, 1991).
Nonfiction by a former president calls for a more conventional strategy. In a long
sentence, Bill Clinton introduces his series of nine items, each beginning with a verb--
select, work, begin, talk, reach and so on. Neatly organized, they accumulate quickly,
dramatizing the multiple responsibilities facing a president-elect in an all-too-short
"There was so much to do: select the cabinet, important sub-cabinet officials and the
White House staff; work with the Bush people on the mechanics of the move; begin
briefing on national security and talk to foreign leaders; reach out to congressional
leaders; finalize the economic proposals I would present to Congress; develop a plan to
implement my other campaign commitments; deal with a large number of requests for
meetings and the desire of many of our campaign workers and major supporters to know
as soon as possible whether they would be part of the new administration; and respond to
unfolding events." (447, My Life, Alfred A. Knopf, 2004)
-- Virginia Tufte
This should clear everything up (and how wonderful that this has been replaced by map apps).
-- Edward Tufte
Thomas Pynchon's, Gravity's Rainbow
This tour of desktop strata from Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow explores the bivariant impact of object size and frequency-of-use on list position. It also exhibits the daring nested list (last quarter of the paragraph), from which Pynchon deftly recovers with a simple ". . .".
-- Justin Vaughn (email)
A damn list
From John Cheever, Bullet Park:
Damn the bright lights by which
no one reads, damn the continuous
music which no one hears, damn
the grand pianos that no one can
play, damn the white houses mortgaged
up to their rain gutters, damn
them for plundering the ocean for
fish to feed the mink whose skins
they wear and damn their shelves
on which there rests a single book
a copy of the telephone directory,
bound in pink brocade.
-- Edward Tufte
A Picasso list
From Liza Kirwin, "Lists, To-dos, Illustrated Inventories, Collected Thoughts and Other Artists' Enumerations," Princeton Architectural Press,
based on material from the Smithsonian's archives of American Art.
-- Edward Tufte
Thorough critique and redesign of bacteria list in medical textbook
"Representative bacterial pathogens whose genomic sequence is entirely or largely known."
From Mims, et al. Medical Microbiology, 3rd Ed. Elsevier Mosby; 2004.
With regard to the list of bacterial pathogens with known genomic sequences:
In general, lists should be ordered substantively not alphabetically. The conventional alphabetical ordering is appropriate for look-up lists such as telephone books. List-makers should look for some kind of substantive ordering before defaulting to alphabetical order. Perhaps a substantive expert could suggest an ordering of the pathogen list. Substantive ordering of lists requires thought, unlike automatic pilot alphabetical orderings. See Jakob Nielsen, Alphabetical Sorting Must (Mostly) Die.
Now, with regard to the list of bacterial pathogens with known genomic sequences:
The pathogen list might also be better simply as a single column of the 57 names. And then that list might be tightened up by listing the secondary names within clusters of primary names. For example:
Mycobacterium: avium, bovis, leprae, tuberculosis
Mycolplasma: genitalium, pneumoniae
and so on, as we now have 7 items in 3 stacked lines. In restructuring the entire list into these local clusters, 22 fewer lines are needed for the stacked-cluster format, thereby yielding a single column list of 35 lines. This stacked-cluster list might well be better for overview, look-up, and learning compared with the run-on list in the textbook. This redesign still uses the alphabetical default, however.
The box and the color fields around the list are just design fooling around, and generate annoying and content-free visual activities (see Envisioning Information, chapter 3 this point). Why leave the text and go to a special place with a purple field, a gray frame, and a gray box just to look at a list? Sidebar materials should be selected on content grounds, and not because the mode of information is different. The gray type on the purple field seems to affect the figure/ground contrast adversely.
The table description might be better at the top. The word "Fig." is not necessary; just the bold label number is fine. Anyway, it is not a "Fig.," it is something else. Probably the list, after the redesign described above, could be simply imbedded in the text, with the caption sentence ending with a colon taking the reader into the redesigned list (on text-tables, see The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, chapter 9).
There are some typographic problems in the pathogen list as well. The spacing around the period in "2.12" is poor. The "Myc" letter combination looks awkward, maybe because of the big slanted divot in the italic cap M. The italics of the classic book typefaces are much better than the clunky italics of the pathogen list, which appear undifferentiated, too uniformly tilted and slopey, and jumpy and optically over-active. For my eye, the x-height is too big. Compare the classic book typeface in the Lodge book (in this thread immediately above) with the leaded-out sans serif italics in the medical text. Although the classic book typeface in the Lodge material is a bit small, it seems crisp and graceful, and has much better letter differentiation than the typeface for the list in the medical textbook.
Probably the list of pathogens in a 2004 textbook is now outdated given the pace of genomic sequencing. That rapid pace would surely be known to the authors of the table. How is the future likely expansion of the list to be noted in such a list? How can an idea about the pace of expansion be explained? Perhaps that was mentioned in the text elsewhere in the book.
One way would be to include an anticipations list based on knowledge of current research. Another way might be to provide dates of those pathogens already sequenced to indicate indirectly the increasing pace of sequencing. Another way would be to provide a small sparkline-like time-plot showing the cumulative number sequenced to date, which would in turn hint at an extrapolated total in future years. Another way would be have a sentence or two that said something like "By 2010 there will approximately be 0000 pathogens that are sequenced." Or "NIH has provided grants for sequencing 000 pathogens in the next 3 years." Or, perhaps best, simply to have one more line at the bottom of the single-column redesigned list: "Researchers in genomic sequencing expect that this list will contain 0000 pathogens by 2015."
The list up to 2004 provides only a one-time snapshot, (a textbook racket, since editions will have to be updated every year or two) which might mislead a few innocents to conclude that there is somehow a finality to the list or to make naive inferences about the pathogens not shown on the list. Design should not entirely revolve around the possibility of misleading a few (well, except for runway incursions!), but still there is a bit of a problem with publishing a soon-to-be-outdated list in a textbook. The list was probably outdated at the moment the presses were printing the textbook, and the publisher was preparing for the next edition that would require $340 to replace this now "outdated edition". Thus the presentation of information is chosen to be time-sensitive, a commercial interest.
More generally, it will be useful in displaying some lists to recognize their snapshot quality and to suggest what future similar lists might look like (when of course appropriate).
-- Niels Olsen
Praveen Tipirneni has constructed a much better design for the bacteria in the medical textbook:
"The major classification of any bacteria is its response to a Gram stain, an assay that begins by staining with crystal violet stain. The bacterium is then classified as Gram positive or Gram negative. As usual, a simple google search will describe the assay in detail.
In scientific journals, it is common to abbreviate the full name of a bacteria into the first letter of its genus and then the full name of the species. For example, Staphylococcus aureus would be abbreviated into S. aureus.
In redesigning the classification, I categorized by Gram stain, then stuck to a bacterium's typical abbreviation in the literature."
-- Edward Tufte
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