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All 4 books by Edward Tufte now in
paperback editions, $100 for all 4
Visual Display of Quantitative Information
Envisioning Information
Visual Explanations
Beautiful Evidence
Paper/printing = original clothbound books.
Only available through ET's Graphics Press:
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Edward Tufte e-books
Immediate download to any computer
connected to the internet:
La représentation de l'information
quantitative 200 pages $12
La Representación Visual de Información
Cuantitativa 200 páginas $12
Visual and Statistical Thinking $2
The Cognitive Style of Powerpoint $2
Seeing Around + Feynman Diagrams $2
Data Analysis for Politics and Policy $2
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Edward Tufte one-day course,
Presenting Data and Information
San Francisco, February 9, 10
San Jose, February 13
Arlington, March 31
Washington, April 1, 2
Strange and unusual maps

An excellent collection, with thoughtful analysis, of quirky maps:

http://strangemaps.wordpress.com/

Be sure to continue on through the collection via "other posts" at the end of the most recent set of maps posted.

-- Edward Tufte


Map #153, A Subway Map of Web Trends 2.0: Pleased to see that ET has his own stop, on the connection between the Technology and Design lines.

-- Larry House (email)


another collection of maps/visualizations with an academic bent to them:

http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/project_details.cfm?index=2&id=2&domain=

and here's an interesting transit map (as discussed elsewhere on this board)

http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/project_details.cfm?index=235&id=235&domain=

Definitely worth a browse...

-- Fraser Moffatt (email)


Dear ET'ers

Here is a very parochial website that shows a range of 1840's tithe maps of Cheshire UK with corresponding 2006 mapping. In one web page they allow the user to shift either the tithe map or the modern map - so those of us who live in a particular location (try the postcode CH48 3JP where my Mum lives) can see both where it is today AND what tithe it had 150 years ago. Both maps move smoothly in synchrony and one view allows a description of who owned that package of land, who lived there and land use (as well as area measured in acres, roods and perches)! You can also overlay ownership information or land use and include township information.

What is quite amusing is that the level of detail and information content that was available in 1844 at the precise location I am typing this (CH48 3JG) now can tell me in very clear detail the size of plot, land use and ownership of the precise square metre of the Earths surface that I am sitting on better than I can get for todays land usage in 95% of the Earths surface.

Best wishes

Matt

-- Matt R (email)


I want to submit the site http://www.radweit.de with its collection of cut-and-paste bike routes in Germany, which bear a striking similarity to "A New Plan of the Road from London to Dover, and from Calais to Paris" as depicted on the spread 112--113 of "Envisioning Information".

All the best.

-- Andreas Scherer (email)


On Display for a Day

I suspect that ET readers will be interested in reading about the Tabula Peutingeriana which is a copy of an ancient Roman roadmap of Europe. It is not on display due to its fragility and light sensitivity, however, yesterday it was displayed for one day as part of Unesco's Memory of the World Register (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7113810.stm). The map is almost a linear East-West mapping of important roads and destinations across Europe and Asia.

Wikipedia has a good entry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabula_Peutingeriana) including a high resolution facsimile that can be downloaded.

best wishes

Matt

-- Matt R (email)


I really like this visual display of the world's rivers and mountains. Does anyone know more about it?

-- Mark Neigh (email)


The map you show is from an American Atlas in the mid to late 19th century, likely either the Johnson Atlas or Colton Atlas. Similar maps were found a few decades earlier in British and French Atlases. For a few different versions of these types of maps visit www.davidrumsey.com ; select 'directory' and under the heading 'what' (for subject matter) find the subject 'mountains and rivers.' In addition to physical geopgraphy data of the mountains and rivers, elevations of temperate zones are noted. My area if knowledge is mostly of Holy Land maps of the 15th - 17th century so I can't offer much information on these relatively modern "antique maps."

Regards, Ron Hekier

-- Ron Hekier (email)


Here is an article at the website of The Planetary Society describing a map I made with the unusual property of folding up to make a model of an asteroid:

Phobos arts and crafts

I hope that comes through as a hyperlink. From the preview it doesn't look to. If not, cut and paste those words into a search browser.

Here's the map:

By the preview it looks a little large; hope that's OK or you'll feel free to reduce the size.

-- Chuck Clark (email)


The BBC will be airing a new TV series called, "Britain from Above" starting this coming weekend (August 10th, 2008).

This video clip teaser on the BBC website shows some beautiful maps of Britain displaying travel and communications data.

-- Katherine Davoli (email)


Winnie-the-Pooh map

-- Edward Tufte


-- Edward Tufte


This sort of "aerial photo as a map" is now commonplace with the advent of web-based mapping services, and the technique of using aerial photography as the basis for maps is well established. I work with oil and gas pipeline maps that were historically hand drawn annotations on top of a printed aerial photo strips. These days they are computer generated from databases of imagery and vector map data.

The issue of the level of abstraction occurred to me when I saw the references to this as a map. A photo on its own is a literal picture of the terrain, albeit with changes in appearance due to the atmosphere (when present!), the camera, surface elevation and so on. A map would have other properties; often scale, location and some sense of abstraction to identify features of interest. So this photo seems to be a real map as it shows scale, a coordinate system and the flight path. The information content is very high, in that the area is described in great detail, but the level of abstraction is very low - it is a photo of the lunar surface with a flight path marked. A far cry from the work of a Swiss cartographer's pen!

I'm interested as to whether the general population still draws a distinction between traditional "drawn" maps and the aerial photos they see online. Google Maps offers users a map view and satellite view, maybe reinforcing this distinction. I wonder if readers, perhaps more familiar with a higher level of abstraction on their maps, consider this a map or not.

(I have a few pipeline map examples handy if an illustration would be of interest)

-- Nick Park (email)


The Apollo map above, which visited the moon, is a fine example of a mapped image (see Beautiful Evidence, chapter 1), nicely combining moon photographs with overlaid cartographic coordinates, flight trajectories, and scales of measurement. It appears from this sheet that the map is constructed from a mosaic of photographs taken at different times (note the varying tones and shadows at lower left and lower right).

The Apollo map is printed as a somewhat coarse black-and-white halftone, with a finer dot than a newspaper photograph but coarser dot than a coated-paper newsmagazine.

Shown above is one of the 24 sheets. Perhaps the 1 meter long, but folded, cyclogram (Visual Explanations, pp. 92-95), is a better method of map management.

I have only slightly mixed feelings about astronauts and cosmonauts selling off government property at auctions (a few astronauts run rather aggressive souvenir shops) because I so like to see information displays in action. The cyclogram, for example, is an extraordinary piece of work and so I was happy to enrich, via Sotheby's, cosmonaut Georgi Grechko, who later provided the extraordinary annotation used on the cyclogram poster and for the versions in Visual Explanations.

-- Edward Tufte


The apparently wind-blown moon flag is always enchanting since there is no atmosphere and thus no wind on the moon.

The lack of a light-scattering atmosphere produces intensely dark moon shadows that caused problems for the first astronauts operating equipment on the moon because it was so dark in the parts of the equipment falling in the pitch-black shadows. There is a sequence of moon-shadow pictures in Beautiful Evidence, p. 99, in the discussion of Galileo's report and drawings of moon craters.

What does the moon look like to astronauts through the orbiting Apollo's windows compared to the gray images on the map, and at what time of moon day? This is starting to sound like our thread on runway incursions.

(And kindly Contributor Nick Park's pipeline examples would be most welcome.)

-- Edward Tufte


The Apollo map/photo hybrid is, as ET states, a fine example of a mapped image. Unfortunately, the items that accompany the map and serve to provide evidence of authenticity, show, at least to me, a distasteful overabundance of marketing spin and pitch.

The photo/map, with Duke's annotations, is grand in that it is nearly all content. The other items, although likely genuine, seem less impressive because of someone's attempt to make them look more impressive.

To me, the first sign that a pitchman is involved is the punctuation on the hand-written note. Quotation marks surround Orion. An exclamation point terminates the first sentence. "on" is underlined in the second sentence to reinforce the fact that a map that went to the moon really was on the moon. Without the exclamation point and underlining, am I to be less convinced?

And Duke, throughout the additional pieces of evidence, changes from being "MODULE PILOT" in the hand-written note, to "Astonaut" in the letter-head, to "Moonwalker" (in a slanted font no less!) beneath his signature. If you are not convinced now, wait! There's more!

Exclamation points also invade the other text: "... shown here on the Moon!", "... our historic lunar landing!", "... from the surface of the Moon!"

The letterhead does include the Apollo 16 insignia, but no mention of NASA (copyright issues??).

---

I'd love to have the map, and my supposition is that it is real. I suppose the market demands that things such as this need authentication and back up documentation. I'm just disappointed in the swarmy marketing approach to the evidence.

In 1992, I attended the middle three games of the National League Championship Series in Pittsburg, when my brother was living there. (Braves won in seven games, scoring 3 in the bottom of the ninth to win 3-2.) A few weeks later, long after Sid Bream had scored the winning run to send the Braves to the World Series (as Barry Bonds made a less-than- stellar throw to home plate), I got a box in the mail from Pittsburg. My brother had somehow acquired a piece of the red, white, and blue bunting that had hung at Three Rivers during Games 3, 4, and 5. He never told me how he got it. And since I have no market-driven authenticity documents to back it up, I guess no one will believe me. :-)

But I still hang it on July 4th!

Rafe

-- rafe donahue (email)


The Lincoln Museum in Springfield, IL produced a video entitled "The Civil War in Four Minutes" which can be googled with that title. It is the map of the eastern United States with a moving boundary of the North/South line and a running tabulator of the North and South casualties in the lower right hand corner. Key battles pop up chronologically and Lincoln's terms are identified. I think the music is from Ken Burns' documentary. The map details are fuzzy, but you get the idea.

-- S. Ira Grossman (email)


I came across this interesting map of 20th century architecture created by architectural historian Charles Jenks, reposted to Flickr.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/archidose/3088862107/sizes/l/in/photostream/

Jenks calls it an evolutionary tree, but it reminds me of the idea maps that were shown and discussed in Beautiful Evidence.

-- Greg La Vardera (email)


From one of my favorite magazines, a heinous graphic that is technically a map, but is more accurately described as an effective summation of most of the attributes of bad design described in VDQI and later Tufte works. I'm sure others will add their own observations, but below are a few that quickly jumped out at me.

  1. The various statistic are located on a stylized map of the United States, but the location of the data is not related to its map location. The map seems to be entirely gratuitous, a waste of two dimensions of information--the x-y location of the data. It is also confused me as I struggled to determine if there is a reason "the number of major conflicts" is in California and the "Gross federal debt" in New England.
  2. Chartjunk abounds. Tiny paper cut-outs for troops, little power cords, half-open cell phones. Enough said.
  3. Volumes represent single numbers, a classic (bad) example from VDQI. My favorites are the hearts in Texas, the gold bars in Washington, the wireless video game controllers in Oregon, and the Monopoly man in the Mid-West. I don't need a cartoon to compare two numbers.
  4. Over quantitization of results. The percentage of wireless-only household is rounded from the 2- or 3-significant digits of data to a whole cell phone icon, reducing the fidelity of the data from 4.2% and 16.4% to 1 or 4 phones.
  5. Oil consumption shown on different time scales. Consumption in 2000 of 19.7 million barrels per day versus 19.5 million barrels per day in 2008 (through September). I am forced to assume this is simply total 2008 consumption divided by the number of days through September, but I'm not sure. Even worse, oil consumption varies by season, so excluding the last (Winter) quarter of the year skews the data, but we're not sure by how much.
  6. The icon for Lockheed Martin's sales is shown as a commercial aircraft. Presumably their sales are included because they are the nation's largest defense contractor, but Lockheed Martin has not built commercial aircraft for some time. Perhaps something defense related that they actually build would have made more sense. Or data for Boeing or Airbus could have been plotted instead.
  7. The use of a widening fat man to plot obesity statistics is disturbing, but did anyone else need to be told that there are 50 states in the union...twice?
There's more but I don't have the energy. I'm curious what others think.

-- Adam Wuerl (email)


Maps of the vertical (for TOM SACHS)

Rock climbing is full of strange & unusual maps of the vertical, with standardized notation that tells us the difficulty of each pitch of the route, type of climbing, fixed gear/bolts, gear to bring, descent route, and identifying features that help locate the route (which can be quite difficult).

Beyond their obvious utility, the topos serve as a visual history of the sport, when comparing one guidebook edition to the next - somewhat like comparing political maps of the world through time. New routes are added, features fall off, bolts are placed, former "aid" routes are free-climbed - acts which reflect changing standards about new routes and increasing skill levels among first ascentionists.

Here's a sample page from the regular guidebook showing (E) "West Crack" in Tuolumne Meadows; the page has a nice mix of notation and features. Lines represent cracks, X's represent bolts, and hash marks show roofs, ledges, corners and aretes. Last time on it a few years ago we were followed by a group including TM Herbert, one of the pioneers of Yosemite climbing, who is still going strong in his 70's. I look at the topo and remember him acting out the reach & twist to grab a key hold in the "5.8 buckets" noted at the end of pitch 1, useful information that no flatland guidebook could convey in quite the same way.

-Tad

San Francisco


-- Tad Borek (email)


The beautiful charts of Clarence Larkin

I searched for an appropriate thread to add these to, and this is the best I could find.

Clarence Larkin (1850-1924) published the seminal book on "Dispensational Theology", a branch of theology dealing with the nature of time and prophecy in relation to the Bible. In his book, Dispensational Truth (1920), he created a number of truly gorgeous charts. I hasten to add that it is not necessary to be a theologian, or even a Christian, to see what a wonderful set of charts these are. In fact one of their major strengths is that, like all good charts, they make perfectly clear what they intend to represent without requiring prior knowledge of their subject.

My favorite chart, "The Mountain Peaks of Prophecy" is a marvelous example of displaying 4D information in a 2D format (source: www.blueletterbible.org):

Here's another (same source):

More of Mr. Larkin's images (in fact, the entire book) may be found here.

-- Steve Roach (email)


The realistic chart of John Rapkin

The following chart presents a realistic comparison of the heights of various waterfalls.

It is a subset of an illustration titled "A Comparative View Of The Principal Waterfalls, Islands, Lakes, Rivers and Mountains, In The Western Hemisphere." published in "The Illustrated Atlas, And Modern History Of The World Geographical, Political, Commercial & Statistical," edited By R. Montgomery Martin in 1851. The electronic version is available in the David Rumsey Collection (http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~779~60084:A-Comparative-View-Of-The-Principal?qvq=q:rapkin;lc:RUMSEY~8~1&mi=1&trs=85).

I found this example of chart leading to the incapacity to compare the heights. On my point of view, the realistic aspect of the representation coupled to a perspective drawing of each element (waterfall) toward the center and an organization of the elements with the smallest in the middle induce the interpretation of a cirque of waterfalls. Linked to this perception effect comes a sense of homogeneity in heights.

The low visibility of the scales on both sides of the illustration and the indirect link between the name of the waterfall and its illustration put the reading at a stronger disadvantage.

-- Abram Pointet (email)


bsd

these maps make me a little dizzy. certainly quirky.

enjoy. BW

http://schulzeandwebb.com/hat/

-- BW (email)


The strange map of today about ring roads (No. 384, 25 May 2009) is a good example of how poor design can result in a virtually undecipherable mess. The compiler of the page says that "As ring roads go, London's is one of the longer ones - which can with some difficulty be gleaned from this map." This was too polite: I would be more inclined to say that it can be gleaned with a great deal of difficulty if you think it worth the effort. The person who designed the map seems to have been more interested in producing a gaudy result, looking something like a flower, than in conveying any information.

As one of the things I learned (or at least became conscious of) from reading The Visual Display of Quantitative Information was that producing bad graphics can be a form of lying it is interesting to note from some of the comments that the principal claim of the map, that Houston has the Longest Ring Road in the World, is not in fact true.

-- Athel Cornish-Bowden (email)


This NYT article gives a slideshow about a Natural history of Manhattan over the past 400 years. The new map-based exhibit opened at the Museum of the City of New York. It is called, "Mannahatta/Manhattan: A Natural History of New York City." The exhibit consists of historical accounts, maps and computer models that explore the ecology of Manhattan from the time before it became a city.

The project has also its own website HERE and a book. This is a pretty good multi-media site that gives layers of meaning to those who now live in Manhattan.

-- Matt R (email)


Dear ET,

Here is an link to images taken from a high resolution video posted at Bremen University. The data is based on ASMR-E sensors that can be used to compute the extent of sea ice. The videos are quite high resolution and they show the flow patterns of the sea ice.

I like the unusual way of looking down at the Earth to the North Pole.

-- Matt R (email)


Cartographic treasures show little change in city life

24 Jun 2009

A unique collection of rare Manchester maps reveals how worries about congestion and binge drinking were just as prevalent 100 years ago as they are today.

The drawings, part of an exhibition of 80 maps unseen in public for up to 200 years, can be seen at The University of Manchester's John Rylands Library opening on 25 June.

It includes an excerpt of the first large scale survey of the city published by William Green in 1794.

And a 1945 map shows how the city centre was slated for transformation into a modernist utopia along the lines of inner city Birmingham. Thankfully the plans never went ahead.

An "isochron" map shows how long it took to commute to the city centre in 1914 and was produced by Manchester Council to convince the movers and shakers of the time that tramways and traffic policemen were needed - echoing the rejected Transport Innovation Fund congestion charge proposals of last year.

"The congestion of 1914 shown in the map bears a strong similarity to the traffic hotspots of today," said Chris Perkins, geography lecturer from The University of Manchester and one of the exhibition's curators.

"It's amazing that it took up to 50 minutes to get to places as far out as Stockport and Timperley - a similar figure to now."

On display at 'Mapping Manchester' is material held by The University of Manchester and other institutions in the city, including generous loans of materials from the Manchester City Library and Archives, Chetham's Library and the Manchester Geographical Society.

An 1889 map of licensed alcohol sellers produced by the United Kingdom Alliance - one of the period's temperance societies - also has an eerily resemblance to the binge drinking hotspots of today, says fellow curator and geography lecturer Dr Martin Dodge also from The University of Manchester.

"This fascinating map published in the Manchester Guardian was purposefully designed to show that the biggest drinkers lived in Manchester's poorest areas - just like today."

"It certainly provoked a strong response from correspondents to the Guardian who were outraged by the 'low morals' of working people," he said.

The exhibition shows Manchester's first ever planning maps, hand-printed 220 years ago for wealthy citizens who displayed them in their homes and offices as a status symbol.

The maps capture the start of the massive growth of the city at the beginning of the industrial revolution.

Mr Perkins said: "In 1945 the Council planned a modernist utopia of straight roads, wide boulevards, roundabouts, and other civic buildings."

"It was part of a 200-page vision for universal education, healthcare and low congestion."

He added: "If they had got their way, they would have covered over parts of the river Irwell, bulldozed Victoria station, and built a wide boulevard between the Town Hall and Deansgate."

"Manchester would have probably looked more like inner city Birmingham than the winding medieval streets we know today."

"Thankfully as cash was so tight in the post-war years, the plans were never implemented."

Also shown in the exhibition is an insert given out free to Manchester Guardian readers in 1926 to celebrate the city's Civic Week.

Dr. Dodge said: "The map was a navigational device but also an elegant attempt to depict Manchester as a city of parks, education and good transport."

"There was of course no depiction of the city's less attractive areas - such as its slums!"


Click here to view the article.

-- Marek Karliner (email)


Scents of the City

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/08/29/opinion/20090829-smell-map-feature.html

-- R.C. JONES (email)


Source: Swann, Autographs, auction catalog, October 29, 2009.

-- Edward Tufte


Mapping character interactions in movies

Three carefully crafted, ingenious charts followed by two delightful zingers....

Movie Narrative Charts

-- Bob Danielson (email)


Best movies of all time meets the London Underground map - what could be more wonderful? Andrea

-- Andrea Cesari (email)


A Tom Gauld map of his holiday home. Complete with extensive key.

Best wishes

Matt


-- Matt R (email)


Winnie-the-Pooh map

(click to see larger)

Source: Sotheby's catalogue, English Literature, History, Children's Books & Illustrations, London, 17 December 2009, p. 92.

-- Edward Tufte


How to plan your way around the solar system while watching your fuel gauge. Another well-executed graphic from XKCD.com.

http://www.xkcd.com/681/

-- Aaron Symanski (email)


Astonishingly beautiful 15-sheet maps series of ancient courses of lower Mississippi from Harold N. Fisk's 1944 Geological Investigation of the Alluvial Valley of the Lower Mississippi River.

Mid-res pictures available at Radical Cartography. Full-res originals can be downloaded at US Army corps.



-- Ivan Poukhkal (email)


Some beautfiul maps of 12 favourite art galleries in Tokyo from the book ArtSpace Tokyo - http://artspacetokyo.com/artmaps/.

Matt


-- Matt R (email)


An extract from a book about maps - an Ojibwe map from ca 1820 in Making Maps A Visual Guide to Map Design for GIS. John Krygier and Denis Wood. ISBN 978-1-59385-200-9

Matt

-- Matt R (email)


Flickr member Eric Fischer, has created two very interesting sets of data maps:

When photographs are taken of a particular place, and then uploaded to a public forum, and tagged with the location that the photograph captured, this is called geotagging. Using scripts to mine the Flickr and Picasa public photograph collections, Fischer created the Geotaggers World Atlas of location-centric photographs, which he subsequently color coded based on who likely snapped the shot -- locals vs. tourists. In the introductory text, he says:

"Some people interpreted the Geotaggers' World Atlas maps to be maps of tourism. This set is an attempt to figure out if that is really true. Some cities (for example Las Vegas and Venice) do seem to be photographed almost entirely by tourists. Others seem to have many pictures taken in places that tourists don't visit."

I live in Pittsburgh, whose color coded map is shown here, and I'm very curious about some of these apparent hot spots -- what's so interesting over there? I'll be finding out soon. And I will definitely check his atlases the next time I travel for hot spots to add to my itinerary.


-- Katherine Davoli (email)


A Guatemala-based mapmaking company Where-To-Go-Maps is working towards creating a globalised mapping system that would see their free hand drawn artistic city maps available to travellers for all major tourist destinations worldwide.

The maps present tourists with the best hotels, restaurants, bars, shops, attractions and sightseeing highlights that each city has to offer, as well as illustrating the specic locations of local businesses who advertise on the maps.

An example below for Madrid (http://www.wheretogomaps.com/map_madrid.html)

Matt


-- Matt R (email)


Here is a great collection of book end papers that are all in the form of maps - this one is from Portrait of a Village by Joan Hassall & Frances Brett Young. Heinemann London 1937. 21 x 30cms. (http://isoipse.tumblr.com/post/76898901/end-paper-maps)

"I take this opportunity of declaring that no village like it [Monk's Norton] has ever existed outside my imagination..." FBY

Matt


-- Matt R (email)


The Map That Came to Life

Here is a childrens geography book by Ronald Lampitt published in the UK in the 1948. The book uses a mix of maps and scenes - segments of Ordance Survey type mapping in one-to-one correspondence with the 3D scene they represent.

The complete book is here (http://www.fulltable.com/VTS/aoi/l/lampitt/map.htm)

Matt


-- matt R (email)


The cultural norm of the tube map strikes again!

Automotive industry by way of the London Underground map.

-- Andrea (email)


Here is a link to a wonderful Civil War-era map showing the distribution of the slave population of the United States as of the eighth census (1860): http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2011/images/earliestoriginalslavechart.jpg.

The map is part of a collection from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The NOAA story about the distribution of slavery map and other materials held by NOAA and available for download or purchase may be found here: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2011/20110210_civilwarmap.html.

-- Ann C. Davidson (email)


This project seeks to create maps of electromagnetic fields, such as those used by WiFi, using a light painting long-exposure technique:

http://www.nearfield.org/2011/02/wifi-light-painting

The results are impressive from both a visual and analytic perspective. By overlaying this information on a real-world scene the connection of the datapoints to a particular spacial area is made concrete.

Improvements in this technique could be had by choosing a different method of representing the signal strength variable, such as light brightness. This particular technique unnecessarily links signal strength with height, perhaps leading to confusion when the data is mapped over uneven topography.

-- John Taylor (email)


displaying intertidal depth over time in topographic-bathymetric maps

Dear ET---

What are your thoughts on how to display intertidal water depth over time in topographic-bathymetric maps? I'm trying to draw a section of shore along California's rocky central coast near a friend's home to help his family with water safety awareness (they had a close call with one of their children last summer), and layering time onto the map seems to change the tenor of the information substantially: land and sea heights need to change as the water depth varies with the tides.

The USGS offers map symbols at http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/symbols/ and http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/usgsmaps/usgsmaps.html#bathymetric but none of the maps visualize water depth over time to display the ebb and flow of the high and low tides.

My preference is to create a single physical map with this information (I think it would be most useful that way, then laminate it for use at the beach), but I can't wrap my brain around how to start to render these elements together. I think that my challenge is conceptual---to find the right model that frames how to represent depth over time independent of the topography, but I can't see the forest for the trees anymore (if you'll forgive the mixed metaphor). As I see it, my variables are:

- ocean depth (fixed once you're out of the intertidal zone) - land height (fixed once you're out of the intertidal zone) - high water mark (as a boundary) - low water mark (as a boundary) - variable depth/height of intertidal features like tidal islets, sandbars, rocks, whether sea caves are flooded or not, etc. (this is where I'm stuck) - time of day in hour increments (this is also where I'm stuck)

I'm also trying to highlight "danger zones" (which will also vary by time/depth), and am ignoring tidal impact from lunar phases for now---I can't grasp this already, without further complicating it by tracking the lunar cycle too.

Any advice would be very appreciated. Thank you!

Allan.

-- Allan Grohe (email)


Hi ET, An image here from the American treasures archive at the Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/).

A map of a Shaker village in Canterbury New Hampshire. Best wishes

Matt


-- Matt R (email)


Dear ET,

Here is a fantastic set of very beautifully drawn maps of English South Coast Harbours from 1698, by Edmund Dummer and Thomas Wiltshaw.

http://www.geog.port.ac.uk/webmap/dummer/dum1menu.htm

The image below is a low-resolution version of Falmouth and surrounding harbours;

"Of Dartmouth Fowey Falmouth & Helford how & what circumstances they differ from all ye rest and our opinion of them.

Dartmouth, Fowey, Falmouth & Helford are places of resort upon some occasions, And there are some particulars at Dartmouth improveable for the Services of the Navy, But in other Circumstances all these seem much more Subject to Hazards for the intercourse of Shipping than those Places do that are already in Use upon this Coast of England to which our Order Confines us, ..."

Matt


-- Matt R (email)


A beautiful animated map depicting winds across the continental United States. http://hint.fm/wind/

-- Adam Wuerl (email)


Dear ET,

Here is a website companion to the book "Mapping the Nation" by Prof Susan Schulten of the Department of History at the University of Denver.

http://www.mappingthenation.com/

Matt


-- Matt R (email)


Last week, Robert Krulwich (RadioLab co-host) wondered on his NPR blog about what happens when you chop up cities and stack them sideways? The pictorial answers comprise a set of strange and unusual maps.

For example: here's Paris:

Paris from above.

and here's Paris with its city blocks dissected and arranged linearly based on shape and size:

Paris, dissected.

Different cities have different block layouts, and so stack up differently. New York's blocks, in contrast, are much more regular. From above:

New York from above.

and with blocks arranged linearly based on shape and size:

NYC, dissected..

I expect geographical features inform how one's city's blocks are shaped, but I wonder if there's other patterns one can eke out from maps like these?

-- Katherine Davoli (email)


Undecipherable?

I found this work called "Infusion: Benefits of Tea" by Hiroyuki Suzuki to be an excellent example of infographics.

http://issuu.com/hiroyukisuzuki/docs/infusion_benefits_of_tea/64

I am an editor on Wikipedia and and I posted a link to it on the Wikipedia article called "Health effects of tea". Soon after, another editor removed it, calling it "undecipherable". I don't wish to start an argument, but I wonder what you and your readers might think?

-- Call me Verne Equinox (email)


Dear ET,

Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) was a British naturalist who independently arrived at the theory of natural selection when he was recovering from malaria on a remote Indonesian island. He wrote a paper describing his idea and famously sent it to Charles Darwin for his views. By rights Darwin should have sent the paper on to a suitable journal with a recommendation that it be published, thereby giving Wallace scientific priority for a radically new, and essentially correct, way of understanding nature.

But that isn't what happened. Darwin talked it over with a few influential chums (Hooker & Lyell) and they cooked up a way of presenting Wallace's paper and a hastily written paper by Darwin at the same meeting of the Linnean Society in London in July 1858.

It is a hundred years since Wallace died and the Natural History Museum in London will begin a celebration of 100 years since Wallace's death this week.

Wallace was a great Victorian travel writer and perhaps his best known volume is The Malay Archipelago. The Internet Archive has a full copy online of the 1869 edition (http://archive.org/stream/malayarchipelago00wall#page/n9/mode/2up).

Below is a map taken from the book that shows the island of Borneo (now split between three countries Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia) on the same scale as the British Isles (now split between two countries Eire and the UK). This is a clever way to show pictorially to the British readers of Wallace's book how big the island of Borneo is. I didn't realise how similar in area Borneo and the British Isles were - Borneo is the third biggest island in the world but is only about 2.5 larger in area than the British Isles (Wikipedia lists the area of Borneo as 743,330 km2 and the British Isles as 315,134 km2).

Best wishes

Matt

http://www.datadeluge.com/


-- Matt R (email)


Basketball maps

This article on several years of hoopster Kevin Durant's has shots several interesting and convincing graphical maps/arguments. http://www.grantland.com/story/_/id/8919214/kevin-durant-having-one-greatest-offensive-seasons-nba-history

-- R.C. Jones (email)


NASA have an incredible depth and breadth of image data that they allow people to use pretty freely in various ways. For example, I had been reading up on the libration of the moon (the observed 'wobble' it undergoes as part of its normal orbit. This means more than 50% of the moons face is seen from Earth - in fact about 60%) and wanted to create a day-by-day sequence of images that showed what you would observe of the moons surface from Earth as both phase and libration changed. It so happens that NASA have a nice web interface that allows you to create hour-by-hour visualizations of the phase and libration of the moon based on their detailed moon surface topographic data. They also have nice video visualizations of these images.

I created a series of these images from 9th May 2011 to 17th May 2011. Each image is at 0 hours UT. I have arranged the images in boustrophedon order beginning top left. I found that this was the best way of arranging the images so that each step in the image sequence is immediately 'adjacent' to the previous step and also adjacent to the next one. After one look you get accustomed to what seems a 'counter - intuitive' way of reading sequences of symbols or images.

A higher resolution version of this confection is here http://www.datadeluge.com/2013/12/libration-phases-of-moon.html.

Note that these are not images captured from a ground based telescope, they are visualisations of data collected from a diverse set of experimental data - such as LOLA the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter measurements of moon topography.

Best wishes

Matt

-- Matt R (email)


Dear ET,

One of my favourite artefacts is the set of pop-out maps made by PopOut products (http://www.popoutproducts.co.uk/index.htm). They have cleverly identified both a need - high resolution spatial data in a pocket friendly format without the need for connectivity or power (i.e. a map) with a way of packaging it into a pocket sized unit.

The company was founded in 1992 - according to the company history:

1992 - Having spotted a need to cure what he calls 'Map Stress Syndrome' after watching numerous tourists around the City of Bath, England, battling with oversized maps, founder Derek Dacey recalls the invaluable miniature charts he used during his days as a commercial pilot. Aiming to bring this level of usability to the city map market, a small team of designers is recruited to realise what would soon become the PopOut.

Here is an example of the PopOut map of London UK showing the cunning folding mechanism that allows the centre of London to be packed into the pocket sized format. Good old fashioned ingenuity, high quality printing, paper and card put to great use.

Best wishes

Matt


-- Matt R (email)


Dear ET,

Happy New Year.

In 1855 the American oceanographer Mathew Maury described the Gulf Stream in the following lyrical terms;

"There is a river in the ocean. In the severest droughts it never fails, and in the mightiest floods it never overflows. Its banks and its bottoms are of cold water, while its currents are warm. The Gulf of Mexico is its fountain and its mouth is in the Arctic Seas. It is the Gulf Stream. There is in the world no other such majestic flow of waters. Its current is more rapid than the Mississippi or the Amazon."

Attached is a map of the Gulf Stream presented in "Light science for leisure hours. A series of familiar esays on scientific subjects, natural phenomena, &c., &c (1871) by Richard Proctor (Available at the Internet Archive).

Best wishes

Matt


-- Matt R (email)




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